3ax SCIENTIFIC DETAILS AND REFERENCES
3ax pedals are not about lateral movement. They are about the angle of the platform (+/- 2 degrees). This degree of freedom allows the foot to find an optimal position during the pedal stroke. The result is that the legs follow a more natural path and this reduces injury and may improve performance. As many users have noted this degree of freedom does not affect platform stability. This is because the platform pivots around a virtual point that is above the foot. Because of this rocking motion the pedal platform not only tilts but also moves laterally by a small amount (+/- 1.5mm) But this is a side-effect, not the reason why the pedal was developed.
Our testing consisted of both real-world and third party laboratory. Real-world testing served to validate the pedal design as a functioning bicycle pedal, and at the same time validate the results of the laboratory testing anecdotally. The real world test pool consisted of over 30 riders, varying levels of ability and experience, and took place for a period of approximately 4 years.
A number of scientific studies were performed by The Hague University of Applied Sciences – Center for Movement Technology (Opleiding Bewegingstechnologie) with additional peer reviewed studies referenced throughout.
October 2013 (H.N. Meulman, J.J.F. van Dam, F.Y. Younis)
November 2012 (Langenhuysen, N., Miedema, A.J., Satter, P., Vroome, N.)
March 2012 (K. van Arkel, M.H.M. van Breugel, M.P. Snoek, E. Windmeijer, M. Heutink)
Some additional studies worth referencing
2011 – (Liem. N. et al.)
2010 – (Clarsen. B., Krosshaug. T. & Bahr. R.)
With VO2-measurements, you can determine how much oxygen you use to generate a certain amount of power (measured in Watts on your rear axel). The amount of oxygen is a good proxy for the amount of energy you use. If it takes less energy to generate the same amount of power/speed, you use your body in a more efficient way.
Put simply: how hard does your body have to work to go fast? And how does 3ax perform in comparison to conventional clipless pedals? Quite impressive: at a power output (W) of 2,5 x bodyweight (kg), our ten test members used on average 3.3% less oxygen with 3ax pedals compared to conventional pedals.
Another way to measure efficiency is to look at the muscle activity in your legs, while generating a certain amount of power. If your muscles work less to generate the same amount of power, power transmission is more efficient. We measured the activity of the vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius lateralis, tibialis anterior and fibularis longus, and found a combined efficiency improvement of up to 5.47%.
IGH SPEED CAMERA STUDIES
If your feet have a tendency to tilt sideways, and your conventional pedals constrain that movement, your legs will compensate by pushing your knees to the left or the right. It’s a waste of energy, because it doesn’t contribute to power transfer.
We were wondering if 3ax pedals improve leg alignment, with less sideways movement of the knees, and asked the University of Applied Sciences in The Hague to conduct a study. They provided avid cyclists with markers on their knee (1), pedal (2) and bike (3), and filmed them with high speed cameras while cycling. The results were exactly what we hoped for: on average, knees move 17% less sideways with 3ax pedals compared to conventional clipless pedals.
FOOT PRESSURE MAPPING
With foot pressure measurements, you can get great insight in the adjustment of your bike and your pedals. In an ideal world, the pressure is evenly distributed. It’s an indication you use your leg muscles in a balanced way, without overusing some muscles while underutilizing others. Riders often experience high pressure points, or “Hot Spots”, when cycling. 3ax helps reduce peak pressure values and distribute pressure more evenly.
The first foot pressure image shows a measurement with conventional pedals…
…and the second image shows a foot pressure measurement with 3ax pedals and a reduction in peak pressure values by 10.7%.